In vitro fertilisation (IVF, IVF-ICSI)

IVF is one of the primary methods of artificial insemination. During this medical procedure, eggs are fertilized with sperm outside the woman's body, i.e. in vitro. A partner's or a donor's sperm can be used to fertilize eggs.

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How does IVF treatment work?

At the beginning of the IVF process, we need to obtain a larger number of eggs than the female body releases at the time of ovulation. Therefore, treatment begins with hormonal stimulation of the patient monitored by ultrasound.
Egg retrieval is performed under general anaesthesia and takes about 10 minutes. When the eggs are ripe, we obtain them from the ovaries by follicular puncture. The doctor inserts a needle through the vagina and gets the follicular fluid together with the eggs. The partner's sperm retrieval takes place on the same day. The eggs obtained during collection are fertilized with sperm, and embryos are kept and cultured outside the woman's body for several days. After a few days, we select the best of the embryos and transfer them to the woman's uterus. Other high-quality embryos can be frozen and stored for later conception at the couple's request.

Who is the IVF treatment suitable for?

• For couples in which the woman is diagnosed with blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis, inflammatory adhesions in the pelvic region or if there is a risk of ovarian failure (low egg production)

• For couples in which the man is diagnosed with reduced fertility

• For couples in which the male has impaired spermiogram values

• For couples with immunological causes of infertility

• For couples diagnosed with another cause of infertility

IVF treatment step by step

1. The preparatory phase

The first step to conceiving a healthy baby using assisted reproduction is an interview with a doctor at the Unica clinic. During the consultation, we analyze the reproductive abilities of each couple. Based on the interview and initial examination, our experts will recommend specific methods suitable for you and set the whole treatment plan. This is what the process can look like:

2. Eggs

When examining a woman, we look at the performance of her ovaries. Egg retrieval is performed under general anaesthesia and ultrasound control. The doctor uses a puncture to obtain the follicular fluid with eggs from the ovaries. We free the eggs from cumulus cells in the laboratory and evaluate their quality and maturity.
If it is not possible for medical reasons to use the woman's eggs, we recommend IVF treatment with donated eggs. The couple chooses a suitable donor from our extensive database.

3. Sperm

Part of a man's examination is a spermiogram test. Its results show us what egg fertilization method is suitable. If the result of the spermiogram is good, the sperm can be used to fertilize the egg and frozen and stored for later use. We recommend a urologist visit if sperm is not found in the ejaculate. These results determine the following treatment procedure, such as surgical sperm collection (TESE or MESA). If the spermiogram shows bad results or we cannot obtain viable sperm through surgery, we recommend IVF treatment with donated sperm. The couple chooses a suitable donor from our extensive database.

4. Eggs fertilization and embryos formation

In assisted reproduction, the egg is fertilized either spontaneously in the woman's body (IUI method) or outside the body (IVF and ICSI methods). We add a sperm suspension of a certain concentration to the obtained eggs in the IVF method. The sperm then penetrate the individual eggs and is naturally selected. We can get a higher chance of successful conception with modern methods such as PICSI, MACS, or MicroChip Fertile Plus®. These technologies preselect suitable sperm, which the embryologist injects directly into the eggs.

5. Embryo cultivation 1st to 5th day

Fertilization of an egg produces an embryo. Its quality depends on the quality of sperm, eggs and the combination of genetic information of both partners. Extended embryo cultivation allows us to select the highest quality embryos with the highest potential to develop further. For a more detailed analysis of embryo development, we use the EmbryoScope. It continuously monitors them and shows us which embryo will be the most suitable for transfer to the woman's body. In case of an increased risk of congenital genetic diseases, we use the PGT-A and PGT-M genetic diagnostic tests. These assess the chromosomal genetic makeup of the embryo and help select a genetically healthy embryo with a standard number of chromosomes.

6. Embryo transfer to the uterus

After successful cultivation, we select the best quality embryo, which is transferred into the woman's uterus. During the transfer, we use one or a maximum of two embryos. Other high-quality embryos can be frozen and preserved for later conception (KET method) at the couple's request.

7. Embryo implantation 6th to 7th day

On the sixth to the seventh day of its development, i.e. two days after the transfer, the embryo nestles in the uterus. The success of nesting depends on various factors. One of them is, for example, the height and structure of the endometrium. The chance of embryo implantation can be increased with the EmbryoGlue® method.


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